Folk Tales-An Eternal Part of Every Culture
INDIA- A country of diverse religions, languages and cultures offers a complete range of tales and short stories.
Widespread Indian Folklore
- Indian folklore has a wide range of stories and mythological legends, which emerge from all walks of life.
- The interesting stories range from the remarkable ‘Panchatantra’ to ‘Hitopadesha’, from ‘Jataka’ to ‘Akbar-Birbal’.
Folk Tales- Precious Treasure
- Full of moralistic values, Indian folklore makes perfect stories for children, who are required to be, instilled with right values.
- All these ancient stories have been passed from generation to generation, creating bondage of traditional values with present-day generation.
- Composed by Narayana Pandit, Hitopadesha had its origin around a thousand years ago.
- Hitopadesha, derives from two words, hita (हित) and upadeśa (उपदेश), and means "to counsel or advise with benevolence."
Idea Behind Hitopadesh Tales
- The author, Narayana, says that the main purpose for creating the Hitopadesha is to instruct young minds in the philosophy of life so that they are able to grow into responsible adults.
- The stories feature animals and birds as the protagonists and are written so that the moral lesson of each tale is clear and obvious.
Hitopadesh – In London
An English translation by Sir Edwin Arnold, then Principal of Puna College, Pune, India, was published in London] in 1861.From its numerous translations came Aesop’s Fables, The Instructive and Entertaining Fables of Pilpay. (1709) and Goethe’s Reineke Fuchs. It has some representative in all the Indian vernaculars.
Hitopadesh Tales- A Few Names…
- Beware of Mean Friends
- Birds & Shivering Monkey
- Blind Vulture
- Elephant and Jackal
- Jackal and Arrow
- Monkey and Bell
- Old Tiger & Greedy Traveller
- Rabbits and the Elephants
- Sages Daughter
- Washerman Donkey and Dog
The Jātaka Tales (Sanskrit जातक and Pali, Malay: jetaka, Lao: satok) is a voluminous body of folklore-like literature concerning the previous births (jāti) of the Buddha. The word Jataka most specifically refers to a text division of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism
Idea Behind Jataka Tales
- In 300 B.C, the Jataka Tales were written for the mankind to gain knowledge and morality.
- The luminous fables of ‘Jataka’ are intended to impart values of self-sacrifice, morality, honesty and other informative values to people.
Translated To Different Languages
Originally written in Pali language, Jataka Buddhist tales have been translated in different languages around the world.
Jataka Tales- A Few Names…
- Jataka Tales
- Cunning Wolf
- Elephant and Dog
- Hawks and Their Friends
- Jackal who saved lion
- Merchant of Seri
- Penny Wise Monkey
- Power of a Rumour
- Golden SwanSandy Road
- Wind and Moon
Panchatantra Tales- Its Origin
The Panchatantra is a legendary collection of short stories from India. Originally composed in the 2nd century B.C, Panchatantra is believed to be written by Vishnu Sharma along with many other scholars. The purpose behind the composition was to implant moral values and governing skills in the young sons of the king. The ancient Sanskrit text boasts of various animal stories in verse and prose.
Five Principles Of Panchatantra
- The five principles illustrated are:
- Mitra Bhedha (The Loss of Friends)
- Mitra Laabha (Gaining Friends)
- Suhrudbheda (Causing Dissension Between Friends)
- Vigraha (Separation)
- Sandhi (Union)
Panchatantra Tales…A Few Names
- The Monkey and the Crocodile
- The Stork and the Crab
- The Elephants and the Mice
- The Loyal Mongoose
- The Tortoise and the Geese
- A Tale of Three Fish
- The Foolish Lion and the Clever Rabbit
- The Jackal and the Drum
- The Elephant and the Sparrows
- The Wise Minister’s Advice